Hail

I self-soothed myself through the hailstorm last night, which, given my heightened nighttime anxiety and PTSD, I consider a notable win. I woke suddenly as it pelleted on the roof and ricocheted off the air conditioner jutting out from the window. The pinging and clanging was jarring and so unfamiliar that I was unable to categorize the noise as a weather-related anomaly, let alone specifically identify it as hail. I tucked into a ball, hugging my knees to my chest and listened. My frantic mind feared combat, an attack from an enemy, some sort of dangerous monstrosity. My muscles tightened and the inside of my closed eyelids flashed a fury of alarming reds and oranges as if staring into the rotating siren light of an emergency response vehicle. I fought the panic by trying to conjure up peaceful images and relax my muscles with each successive exhalation, employing progressive muscle relaxation techniques I’ve been practicing every morning. The sounds only got more disruptive and bewildering and although I was able to harness my worries and prevent continued escalation, I remained engrossed in concern, perched on the precipitous of sympathetic fight-or-flight.

One issue with auditory processing attributable to SPD is a pervasive difficulty in locating the origin of a sound. I can hear everything just fine; in fact, I have an extremely keen sense of hearing, but I often am unable to identify what the noise is or even what direction it’s coming from. This greatly complicates my ability identify and classify the sound, which heightens my anxiety because it’s not clearly evident if it’s innocuous or dangerous. (When in doubt, my brain errs on the side of caution and assumes danger.)

Last night, as the erratic banging continued, I pulled out my phone to try and put on a calming video for more engaging distraction. I noticed the alert on my weather app and quickly discovered that we were amid a hailstorm. Crisis averted.

I am much too light of a sleeper to sink back into sleep while the racket continued, so I relaxed and watched my show until the torrent was over and the more gentle rain lulled me back to sleep. A year ago, this type of unprecedented and unusual calamity would have sent me into an inconsolable tailspin. Even if I had rationally deduced the cause of the noise was innocuous as hail, it would have been nearly impossible to quell the initial panic and calm myself back to sleep. The hopes for additional rest would have been abandoned with the first weakening pitter-patter. The remaining hours of night would have been spent remembering the jarring noise, the resultant uneasiness, and the range of possible (and impossible) dangerous sources that could have generated such terror.

But not last night! Last night was evidence of my improved self-control, command over my previously-unbridled anxiety, and coping tools to manage startling situations.

Update on the Foot Saga

There are conflicting opinions about my foot. The doctor I’ve been seeing since February about it thinks it has not healed at all. Last Monday, in what can only be described as a bizarre and upsetting appointment, he told my husband and me that there is no evidence of healing and that surgery now is no longer an option. It was as if he was completely reneging on his prior assertions that surgery would be the only way to get it to heal, now he was saying because there was no healing, he was not going to do surgery. This paradox and contradiction completely confused both of us. Ben took the mature higher road and tried to ask very basic clarifying questions to ensure we understood his flip-flopped opinion. I sat there melting down with tears and sobs fretting that “I’ll be in a boot until I’m 40!” The surgeon completely ignored me and only shrugged at my husband’s questions. Ben, seeing that I was unraveling, said, “yeah so I mean if it doesn’t heal in another year or two you still wouldn’t do surgery to fix it?” He stopped shrugging, paused, then said, “maybe after another year.” Then he said he’d see us in another eight weeks and walked out. 

Like a barnacle on a sea rock, I clung to Ben and wailed about my frustrations and that the doctor didn’t want to help me. Although my response was emotionally over-dramatic, the stress of the appointment, diabolical nature of the doctor, and his unwillingness to answer our straightforward questions met at an overwhelming head. Even calm, cool, and virtually unperturbable Ben said, “this guy isn’t our doctor. He wouldn’t even explain anything.” Then like a mother duckling, he led me out of the office, trailing behind in residual sniffles and tears. 

I spent the rest of that afternoon trying again to find other viable specialist in the area. I made a couple of appointments and tried to table my anxiety and frustration for the rest of the day. Not easy. As usual, I could barely sleep.

I received a phone call from one of the offices I had contacted by Tuesday afternoon. She had a cancellation on Friday in Connecticut, a distance I felt reluctant (but able) to drive. Friday, I drove myself down and met with the new doctor. He had a vastly different opinion and equally different mannerisms. He took the time to explain things to me, actually evaluated my foot with clinical tests instead of solely relating on imaging reports, and a contrary treatment plan. “It’s basically healed,” he asserted. “There’s still some residual swelling in and around the bone but it’s essentially undetectable.” He encouraged me to start weaning out of the boot and resuming low level activities. He even said he thinks I could be back to running within a month, quite a contrast to the other surgeon’s prognosis which was, I wouldn’t be running again for a year or so, if at all. After all, he didn’t think running was a healthy activity for anyone. Armed with a more optimistic prognosis, I headed home in much better spirits. 

Unfortunately, that night while lying in bed, my foot had a more pronounced ache than normal. I had not even removed the boot for walking yet and it already seemed worse. As anxiety consumed my thoughts, we called the answering service (something I never do). To my pleasant surprise, the operator connected us with the doctor right away who assured me this is somewhat normal because he “really firmly manipulated it to assess the function and clinical symptoms.” He recommended icing it, taking anti-inflammatories, and keeping it in the boot the next three days and then resuming his purported plan. This made sense to me since we did do aggressive assessments after the conservative evaluation revealed nothing painful or abnormal. With the connective tissue disorder I have, it’s also normal to have tendon and ligament dysfunction coupled with extremely tight muscles, so he hypothesized that some of the calf raises and foot mobility against resistance had merely aggravated my muscles and tendons in the area.

I am optimistic about the treatment, care, and plan and delivered by the new doctor, but at the same time, my hesitation to remove the boat and start walking is rational. Not only has it taken so long to get to this precarious point of potentially healing, but the blatantly contradictory advice begs the question as to who is right and whom to trust. The answer lies within me. It is my responsibility and within my control to carry out whatever I deem best. It’s my foot and I’m the one who is experiencing the injury. More so than ever, I must listen to my body and pay close attention to my symptoms and needs. I plan to try carefully weaning out of the boot as instructed all while directly focused attention toward the area to monitor the physical response. I must strike an informed balance between heeding caution and restraining my anxiety so it doesn’t pollute my assessment. I pray that it has healed and can handle incrementally more sneaker time, but I am mentally prepared to dial it back if need be. This entire injury has been one of the most trying exercises of patience, maintaining faith and hope, and discipline. There have been more than many moments where I was ceded that I’d never walk again, let alone run. The future is still enshrouded in mystery, but the ominous gray cloud that used to conceal the bleak outlook portended, now looks lighter and brighter. My fears and worries are not gone, but they are better balanced by optimistic hopes for restored function, painless miles, and endless smiles.

Interview

Interviews rarely scare me. I’ve applied for hundreds of jobs over my working lifetime and gone on dozens of interviews. This is not hyperbole. One could argue this has largely been a waste of time, and sometimes it has been, but it has also helped me amass a ton of experience answering and asking important questions and diffusing the nervousness inherent in such meetings. Most of the time, I feel so practiced and familiar with the questions because they are often predictable ones I’ve previously tackled. I seem to be diabolically self-aware: uncannily so in certain aspects of my life and beyond blind (if such a condition exists) in others. Luckily, the former tends to apply to employment-related screening questions. Akin to how I study, catalog, and memorize social behaviors and expectations, I readily store and retrieve informative and eloquent responses to questions I’ve previously encountered. Even under pressure, I can grab from memory and regurgitate an appropriate response. For this reason, interviews don’t rattle me. Usually.

Yesterday, was an exception. I was confidently navigating a video conference interview for an interesting part-time job I happened upon in my current job search. (Even though I have a job that I love, I usually keep my eyes out for appealing and potentially viable opportunities because I’m an independent contractor so one of the few downsides of my position is its lack of security.) The questions were clear and I answered them comfortably. Admittedly, I did have more anxiety surrounding this interview than normal because the employer is a professional I’ve looked up to for a long-time, unbeknownst to him. His work is iconic in his field and he’s as much of a celebrity to me as Brad Pitt or Jennifer Aniston is to most (or whomever is hot these days!). I’ve followed his work religiously over the years and so to actually connect one-on-one, even in interview style, felt like an amazing and exciting opportunity. Of course, he knows nothing of me because I have no measurable public persona or impact, and certainly not one that would have spread to him. After the initial fangirl nerves reflective of being in the (virtual) presence of my guru were swallowed, I felt giddy and lucky to have the time to connect. This excitement lent a palpable energy to the conversation and somewhat of a natural rapport was quickly established. I figured this would bode well for my candidacy for the position because I seemed engaged, attentive, and genuinely eager, which I absolutely am. Then, things rapidly veered South: an unprecedented question.

“Tell me one thing about you that I can’t get from your resume or cover letter?”

It seemed like a fair, and interesting question, but it caught me off-guard. While I had been all too quick to answer the other predictable questions rather expressively and confidently, I took my first long pause and inserted the time filler, “hmmm…good question…” then repeated it as if asking myself the same thing.

I knew what I wanted to say (perhaps the elephant in the room of being autistic or my crippling PTSD and anxiety?), but I felt that would instantly quell my chances at the position and was too complicated to divulge without ostensibly trying to defend myself as still a capable worker (it’s amazing how the prevailing opinion is that these “issues” would make me a subpar employee).

It may have been the pause, the flash of panic that graced my face, or some tell sign I obliviously revealed earlier in the interview, but in my pause, he added, “you know, anything personal like a challenge or condition you face or something you’ve learned about yourself.” Does he already know? Is he goading me to self-identify? I wondered.  My face instantly glowed a hot red, like when your using the Paint app and select the “fill” or “dump paint can” icon and the entire figure is flooded with color. Don’t blow it, I pleaded. My entire operating vocabulary was suddenly locked up and the only words floating within reachable grasp were those that most hopeful job candidates would keep far from any resume: autism, anxiety, weirdo, PTSD, raped-and-ruined, depression. With each half-second that passed, I could feel my mutism mounting an aggressive offensive, so I picked the least “incriminating” of the limited options still available to me, “depression!” I blurted out as if it were the solution to the final puzzle on Wheel of Fortune. Say something else, I begged of my brain. “Uh, I have chronic depression.” That doesn’t sound good I thought. I was afraid to watch his reaction on the screen but forced myself to make momentary eye contact with his video. He shifted, perhaps uncomfortably, and waited to see if I was going to say more. Nothing. “Oh,” he added, as if hearing awkward news on a first date when you’re trying to be polite but secretly disappointed or disgusted.

The energy from the entire conversation plummeted and was swallowed by each of our computer screens, leaving a vacuous and stale hum of the remote connection. Whereas before, we were volleying eloquent ideas and relaying enthusiasm with each pass, the silence now was stifling. I seemed entirely unable to even formulate a coherent sentence to thank him for his time and end the call. I considered simply x-ing out of the window and blaming technical difficulties, but God threw me a bone. I took a few deep breaths, aware that my back was now sweating under my sweater, and found my voice: “yeah, I have chronic clinical depression and it’s something I battle on basically a daily basis, but I’ve learned to cope and keep it at manageable levels.” Good start, I thought. “It’s like any problem. It’s simply a challenge that I’ve been dealt but it makes me stronger and as I’ve matured, I’ve discovered productive ways to handle it.” Give an example, I encouraged myself. “Like my dog,” I offered. “I’ve found so much joy in spending time with her and I feel like I connect with her in a meaningful way. There’s something very grounding about pets and caring for her brings me happiness.” Call in the generators. It was as if I summoned the energy back and resuscitated the conversation enough to at least give it a moonshot of a surviving chance. “I love my dog too,” he offered. “What kind do you have?” “A golden retriever!” He said. “Awesome!” I said, which, although not the most prolific response, was better than nothing.

Shortly after, we wrapped up the meeting in a slightly less awkward fashion. What I figured was just going to be a rote interview, turned into more of a stressful stimulus that I envisioned. My uncharacteristic nervousness left me surprisingly sweaty and I had to rinse off and completely change outfits before moving on to the next thing!

The whole experience made me wonder why it’s so hard to share personal information about the struggles we face. Everyone has some challenge, so I’d think it would feel more natural, or at least less mortifying and self-sabotaging, to admit them. I partially blame my self-esteem and imagine it’s never as opportunity-killing as I imagine it to be, but I think the stigma surrounding mental illnesses and autism is still a reality and such information can hurt one’s chances for a job or a second date or whatever the objective might be (save for therapy?). I have vowed to be more upfront and try to increase awareness, so I’m hoping that if this job doesn’t pan out, or even if it does, down the road, I can be more open with any self-identifying questions and not fret so frantically about the implications. Especially if I wait until I’ve demonstrated my value and command of the position, it shouldn’t hurt my reputation and instead, hopefully would dispel some of the incorrect perceived weaknesses or conflicts with my viability and merit as an employee and person.

 

Stunned into Silence

My selective mutism completely overtook me yesterday. I went several hours without the ability to speak. The little voice I was eventually able to conjure up was so feeble and small, it was like a hushed mother trying not to wake the baby in her arms. This time, it wasn’t directly tied to a medical appointment, although I did have one later in the day that I seemed nervous about. For this reason, I’m not sure that it was entirely separate and more likely, my tension and anxiety in anticipation of the appointment played a role. Still, it typically hasn’t been the case that I lose my voice prior to an appointment. Instead, I’m usually quite chatty until I enter the waiting room, and effectively smothered like a fire extinguished by a woolen blanket. 

The precipitating event yesterday seemed to be an emotional explosion in the morning. After trying repeatedly and unsuccessfully to reach Ben via his phone, I panicked that something was wrong with him and adrenaline coursed through every last millimeter of vasculature in my body. This call was already one fueled by stress because I was having debilitating dizzy spells and so I was contacting him for support. When he didn’t answer after many, many attempts, my irrational brain immediately jumped to worst case scenario stuff (car accident, bad fall, etc.) and skipped all of the more likely and less dire potential causes for his lack of reachability. (He just inadvertently fell asleep.) In fact, these sorts of realistic possibilities were not even considered for a fleeting moment; my trauma brain took over and immediately assumed the worst and only the worst.

It wasn’t until early this morning that I was able to connect the dots and make sense of that. I remember exchanging a couple of really helpful emails with one of my sisters last year about PTSD and emotional fallout from traumatic events. I had reached out to her for advice about my problems with PTSD after the attack because she had survived a bike accident years earlier, and while quite different in nature, still certainly a traumatic event to overcome. I correctly figured that she might have some tips or at least solidarity with some of the emotional demons I was facing. She told me that she had very little PTSD and was pretty much over it now but that she still would get incredibly mad at her own husband when he was unreachable, even though she couldn’t draw any connections between not being able to communicate with him and her accident. As I lay on the rug this morning thinking about things like I do every morning, trying to meditate and relax, my sister’s words suddenly helped me understand what went on with much more clarity.

Not only do I hate not being able to reach Ben if I feel like I need him, but it instantly transports me back to the first moments after I getting up from my attack because after I attended to my immediate physical problems, I sought out my phone, which had been tried from my hands and flung behind the couch, to call Ben. I called. No answer. I called. No answer. Then he texted to remind me that he was out to lunch with friends and he would contact me when he got back to the office. Instead of asserting the urgency and severity of my needs, I just felt rejected and alone. Of course, had I told him that I just got brutally attacked and raped, he would’ve been home or at the nearest hospital to meet me, as soon as the first available cab could wiz him there. I blame the complete shock I was in, the searing pain, the greatest depths of fear and disgust I had ever experienced on my inability to voice my needs. My therapist has since told me that this is a fairly normal post-traumatic response. I simply wrote back “fine,” and by the time he did call me back, I was completely consumed by silence. I just texted back that I no longer want to talk, which was technically a lie because I did want to talk but I was entirely unable to. It’s fair to say I went into a hibernation of sorts after that. I completely disconnected in all sorts of ways from him and everyone else in my life at that time for several days. Needless to say, I have more than just anxiety at face value when I can’t reach Ben when I don’t feel well; it’s inseparable from the horrific memories surrounding that dreadful day. 

Anyway, after I was finally able to wake him with call after call, I exploded at him in a tirade of tears and shouts about how he terrified me and I thought something happened to him; although unfair and irrational, I spoke the truth and my feelings were deeply seeded and real. 

The entire outburst lasted all but a couple of minutes, but it relegated me to that of a meek nonverbal mouse for six hours. I felt like an outline of a human form, one that could be blown into scattered fragments like a summer dandelion puff. Even when I walked the dog, my thoughts were just mouthed in inaudible configurations of the words I intended to say and my muscles felt melted along my bones like the feeling that only comes after being physically spent at the end of a hard race. 

By mid afternoon, I was able coax out a small voice, which was a relief because I rarely feel unable to speak for so long. I think it’s an emotional issue more so than a physical one, my autism therapist says these sorts of “shutdowns” can happen.

Even though I’m often upset and juggling a lot of demanding issues, I rarely lose my cool. I’m one of the least confrontational people I know and almost always internalize fear, anger, hurt, or overwhelm instead of letting it surge out. This unfamiliarity adds to my discomfort and shock when it does escape in a demonstrable way. I thrive on stability and predictability, and any sort of fitful anger or hysteria uproots my feeling of control, even if it is a farce in reality and unhealthy to bottle up. 

The most difficult part of the experience was explaining myself to Ben. Although I don’t concede that my exaggerated response to not reaching him was justified, I do now acknowledge why I have this post-traumatic reaction. My sister is one of the most even-keeled and logical people I know, so if even she has had similar irrational behavior, it further provides me understanding of my own panic.

The mutism must be the way my mind recoils in an attempt to restore equanimity after an emotional torrent like the echoes of deafening silence after a massive explosion. It’s an uncomfortable place because I’m the silence, I cannot express my thoughts or needs. In the silence, my brain runs discounted showings of the memories of the attack, flooding “TV screens” in my mind with simultaneous screenings of lived trauma. The verbal silence seemingly opens a permissive and inviting gate for the memories I try to suppress to air on full blast enshrouding me in the disgusting fearful garb that cloaked my entire conscious and unconscious mind post-attack. Why can’t I burn these memories and watch them rise in lofts of ash far up into the sky? Why can’t I always operate with self-control, logic, patience, and calm? When will my resilience become foolproof and my strength no longer be an act? I can’t answer these questions and I’m guessing that the answer may not be what I hope it to be, that’s why it’s more productive to focus on what I can change and the progress I have made. Yesterday’s outburst was not progress but unpacking its roots was a substantial step forward. Before today, I had no concrete grasp on what was precipitating such unduly magnified reactions. I speak frequently of wanting all of this PTSD stuff to vanish, and I do, but I’m sure there are invaluable lessons and some purpose that I am deriving from this place of pain and this space in my life. I will do my best to trust in the process of my healing, the outward expansion and inward growth that I will glean, and hope that each experience and tribulation is like a crucial piece of the foundation or scaffold from which my “building” as a human becomes better, stronger, and more useful to those around me. 

Phone

To add to my string of recent falls, I took yet another tumble down some of the stairs yesterday. Thankfully this time, I didn’t cause much bodily harm although I did crack my cellphone screen. Of course, this is certainly a better trade in many ways, I found myself being just as upset, if not more so. I know that people talk about technology addictions, especially in terms of some people’s attachments to their cellphone, and I’m probably in that camp of people. I can’t really surmise why most people become obsessed because frankly, I don’t have any friends who are to ask. My husband still uses a flip phone and no one else’s phone in my family seems to be a permanent extension on their hand like it is in my case. For me, my phone is my world. It is my way to connect to other people and, in its own right, it is my friend. Since I work at a home office and have no local friends, it is the only vehicle through which I communicate with people and the outside world. I know this is abnormal and unhealthy, but it is my reality. My phone is my anti-anxiety medication; when I don’t feel well, I remind myself of the outline of my phone in my pocket and I feel assured that I can get help if I need it. When I was attacked, as soon as he grabbed me from behind and threw me to the ground, he ripped my phone out of my hand and flung it across the room. When he silenced me, I had no means to communicate that I needed help except silent prayer in my mind. Four days after the attack, I was in separable from my cell phone. My hand was constantly on it, even when it was in my pocket, under my pillow, or in the bathroom.

This phone has been with me for nearly three years, which, given my carelessness, propensity to fall or damage things, and its constant use, is remarkable. Maybe it is the length and depth of this “relationship” that, ashamedly, makes me mourn the breaking of this device.

I am fully aware that phone is not a real friend, and to even remotely consider it as such is quite pathetic. I want to connect with people. I want to have more friends. I’d love to have someone who called me to meet up and hang out. This is a process though and an arduous and unnatural one (for me) at that. For now, I have a handful of good friends that I text or call daily. These people, for the most part, inhabit fragments of my “old” lives: times when I was surrounded by more people, forced to be more social because of work or habitat, or was less encumbered by physical and mental obstacles. (Chronic disease and my near inability to drive certainly hampers my ability to participate in normal social events.) These people have hung with me through changes, challenges, and miscommunications. They have allowed me to grow as a friend and they have ridden out the bumps I’ve made as I’ve learned to be a better friend. I am blessed to have a place in their hearts and I honor and nurture the prominent residence they have in mine.

I am a member of several online support groups for adults on the spectrum. I connect with these virtual friends through my phone. If people were mapped in Venn diagram, the overlapped regions are inherently much larger between my circle and the circles representing many of the other group members than my circle and many neurotypical peers whom I want to befriend.

Like sharing a common culture, language, or customs, I’m more closely “related” to other spectrum-dwelling adults in many ways, and the reciprocity of understanding one another is both easier and more expansive than between me and a typical people of “normal” neurology. Although I am so glad to have access to an artistic community thanks to technological and communicative advancements provided by the Internet, I can’t help but be honest and admit that I’d still really like friends in the flesh who I actually spend time with. Their neurology is unimportant to me as long as they are good people. Even though an autism diagnosis is much more common these days than even twenty years ago, obviously, the majority of the general population is not on the spectrum so it’s more likely to find neurotypical friends. I need to be able to bridge the gap between these two worlds. While I have done this successfully before, it takes time and effort (and compassion and patience of the other party’s part!).

Far and above the challenges posed by my social, emotional, and physical problems, I believe the biggest hurdle to clear making friends is the schedule I keep. Essentially, it’s like that of a shift worker, working second shift. Even for those social butterflies who keep such a schedule, finding friends and participating in social activities is nearly impossible, especially if you don’t live in the city and are isolated in a small town. New York City may be the city that never sleeps but western Mass, although wonderful in many ways, gets plenty of sleep. My body operates on asynchronously with most other people. I’m up before 3am and done for the day around 5pm. I’ve tried coercing it into a more “normal” routine, but that just wreaks havoc on every physical and mental process. Even with Benadryl and nights of not falling asleep, I cannot sleep past 4am. I can then try to remain in as much of a sensory-depriving environment as logistically feasible to keep my overload below threshold, but even so, it’s virtually impossible to have the physical and mental stamina to persist past 6pm before I must be prostrate to the couch with no movement or talking. My brain runs nonstop in high-gear all day and I have yet to tame her incessant work; I can consider and effectively work on many things at one time, but then I run out of legs for the end of the race. I’m a relay of runners who ran their lap together around the track at full speed instead of passing the baton for each individual leg. I’m embarrassingly exhaustible; I’m a racecar on full throttle with no brakes. All this is to say, when most people head out the door for their morning commute, I’ve already put in four or five hours of work, and when almost everyone is clocking out for the day and are finally available to hang out, I’m crawling into bed or nearly comatose on the couch. The only groups of people I seem to overlap with are stay-at-home parents, the elderly or retired). My small town seems to lack any sort of daytime programming or activities for anyone outside of the aforementioned groups, and truth be told, I’m working most of the day anyway, even if I do have some scheduling flexibility. Despite this scheduling incompatibility, I keep looking and hoping to find some venue to meet in person and cultivate friendships. It’s easy to resign my socially-avoidant self to ongoing isolation and fall prey to a myriad of excuses, but I’m actually rather disciplined in researching options, trying to get out there, and simply recognizing the obstacles for the purpose of strategically mounting an effective offense rather than ceding to their debility. At the end of the day, I need to respect my deal breakers (in terms of my work scheduling obligations and energy needs) but compromise on every possible manipulatable variable to try to make it work. My mom always says I find these really interesting opportunities and I do because I’m willing to cast a really wide net; you never know what will pan out so it can only be fortuitous to keep an open mind and religiously seek opportunities for whatever it is you desire.

I am grateful that I live in a time of interconnectedness and communities engaged through technology. In many ways, the Internet has made the world smaller by forging bonds across great distances. My remote friends and online social support network keep me from being entirely marginalized and allow me to hone my relationship skills and understand myself better and more compassionately. It somewhat removes the “freak” or “loner” label that I’d otherwise tattoo onto myself (instead it’s just a removable sticker). Perhaps I’m too addicted to my phone and I recognize that it’s far healthier to have in vivo friendships, but for where I am now in my life, it’s an indispensable tool and companion, a device that teaches me, alleviates my anxiety, and connects me to others and my world. I hope my new one further guides me to forge friendships and that more of the “lifetime minutes” for calls sent and received are occupied by quick conversations to establish plans with others, then it will navigate me to the meetup and get stowed in my pocket while I make new memories with new friends.

 

The Power of Attitude

As a young child, I was remarkably upbeat, happy, optimistic, and hopeful about my future and that of the world. Anything seemed possible and I had wholehearted confidence in my ability to transpire my dreams into my reality. Mostly, I credit my parents for fostering this attitude of wonder and self-assurance; they provided me with ample opportunities to explore the world and my capabilities and never set boundaries or limitations on what I was capable of, even if they had their own (realistic) doubts. I certainly had my fair share of physical and emotional falls and fails, but they never seemed to set me back with much permanent or lasting impact. I had a lot of behavioral problems, particularly in my first years of school and in social situations that my older sisters never displayed, and to say that I presented more of a parenting challenge throughout my entire childhood is a gross understatement. In hindsight, it’s clear that much of my misbehavior, rambunctiousness, and hair-pulling frustrating confusion was a product of my undiagnosed autism and sensory processing disorder. At the time, my hyperactivity, finicky-ness, and even “bratty and immature” behavior was attributed to ADHD and my position as the youngest of three girls. Needless to say, the routine misdemeanors, punishment, timeouts at school, less-than-stellar report card marks for behavior (and penmanship) did little to curtail my mojo and I remained a spunky, relentlessly positive kid.

Something began to shift in the months before my tenth birthday. As if double-digits inherently ushered in the cessation of innocence, verve, and faith in oneself and the world, my mindset and affect began to dramatically shift. In the manner in which a windup toy peters out as the duration of its chatter and clatter lengthens after the initial spinning charge, my zest, vigor, and sunny outlook faded in favor of a restrained, timid demeanor.* Doubt replaced hope, worry and anxiety trumped my carefree nature, pessimism extinguished optimism, and my self-esteem plummeted. Within a few months, depression clouded out the very happiness and joy that had previously bestowed upon me the nickname “the happiest girl in the world,” used lovingly, but earnestly, by my dad. A switch had been flipped and my internal world, which colored my external one, changed.

As with most things which are rarely black or white, solely good or bad, some changes brought on by this metamorphosis were beneficial: my behavior, now so reserved, no longer landed me at the back table or time-out position at school, instead, teachers remarked that I was well-behaved. The more I restrained my body and physical hyperactivity and conformed to the expectations and qualities of a mature and “good” student, the more wildly and feverishly my brain ran. There was a constant barrage of anxieties, questions, troubles, fears, and even panic. Sure, there were also hopes and constructive thoughts, mulling over things learned in school, observations made out and about, and intellectual curiosities much like those that characterized my kid brain, but it became harder to hear these over the sheer volume and strength of the pessimistic thought reel. Little did teachers know that as I sat there studiously at my desk, the littlest one in the class with a big brain and bright responses to assignments, I was filled with internal angst, confusion, and sadness. My “proper” behavior was actually just paralysis induced by depression devouring my energy and ubiquitous pensive concerns. Shortly after, I developed an eating disorder that proved to be a formidable foe for the next eight years. The depression and anxiety fueled the anorexia, which in turn, sunk me into more severe depression and calamitous anxiety.

I wish I could say that some other momentous birthday or other occasion caused the same radical about-face in my outlook as did turning ten, but truthfully, nothing had been as exorbitantly formative in changing me. With that said, particularly in recent years, I have found a better balance and allowed some of that positivity, hope, and verve to weasel its way back into my psyche and shine through the constant cacophony of worries, bleak and dispirited thoughts, and emotional pain. My inner strength and confidence have mounted as I’ve triumphed over difficulties and become a curious and dedicated student of myself. For me, self-awareness has had an instrumental role in increasing self-compassion. I’ve even surprised myself in the authenticity of my mental fortitude and strong drive to seek and recognize the silver linings in spite of some tremendous adversities I’ve faced in recent years. I’m proud of things that I’ve overcome and the resilience of my positive attitude when it would be so understandable to completely crumble.

Some days, in accordance with the idiom “fake it ’til you make it,” the optimism and emotional fortitude is somewhat of an act, a tiring attempt to feign stability and tenacity. Although exhausting, there does seem to be some payback from this practice, but thankfully, sometimes the attitude is genuine. My foot injury is an example of the former turning into the latter. After it seems like surgery was in evitable, I experienced slight improvement in the pain and swelling after weeks of nonexistent progress. I have long heard that having a good attitude through illness and injury is scientifically proven to improve healing and perhaps my desire to avoid surgery was so primal and deep that I truly convinced myself that my foot was healing. It’s not. I have objective evidence from imaging studies that fail to demonstrate an iota of progress; it’s exactly the same as it was four months ago. At first, I couldn’t believe the results; I was so assured it was physically healing because my conviction in maiming a positive outlook became so powerful. I cancelled the postponed surgery date in favor for the conservative route.

Once the initial shock delivered by the MRI’s report on the stagnant state of my foot, I sat with my feelings. In the quiet of the predawn hours where all my clearest thoughts reside, my pride and optimism stripped away, I felt the throbbing pain, the familiar ache from the initial months of injury. The pain had not just returned, it had never really gone away. I had just become committed to silencing it in hopes of encouraging my body to actually resolve it. It looks like I will need the surgery after all.

Of course, I am very disappointed I will have to have the surgery and because I have medical anxiety, I am certainly anxious for that day. However, although I was mad at myself a couple of days ago for my inability to honestly assess the pain and progress of my foot, I choose to remain proud. It’s not easy to be hopeful and positive in the face of a bad injury, let alone the larger obstacles I have faced. As the sands of hopefulness and confidence ran out of the hourglass that ushered in age ten, I lost so much more than just the innocence of childhood. It’s taken two decades to build back some of what I’ve lost and so I will honor and admire all of the positive attitude triumphs, enthusiasm, and growth mindset moments that I can cultivate.

 

*The reason that turning ten served as an impetus for such change is complicated and I’m not sure I fully understand it, but I will attempt to evaluate it at a subsequent time.

Comet

Yesterday was our seven year anniversary of adopting our beloved dog, Comet. I remember the evening; it was a Thursday and Ben picked me up in front of Queens College where I was finishing up my graduate degree in Exercise Science and Nutrition. He was driving a rented ZipCar because our puppy was in a litter being fostered in southern Connecticut. The agency, Pet Rescue, pulls dogs from kill shelters mostly in the South and brings them up to the Westchester area, where they are fostered by volunteers until adopted.

I had been begging Ben for several months to allow us to get a puppy but the time wasn’t right at first and for a short stint, we lived in a small studio in Queens where dogs were not allowed. I was going through an emotionally difficult time and desperately wanted a pet, so my mom let us temporarily foster her cat for several months. This was helpful, although it didn’t fully scratch my dog-desiring itch. For numerous reasons, the Queens apartment didn’t work out and we ultimately moved back to Harlem. This time, we landed a dog-friendly rental and I revisited the discussion. Ben, an avid dog lover, finally agreed that it could work out. I had been researching dog rescue agencies and keeping my eye out for specific dogs for several months. We didn’t have a particular breed in mind nor clearly defined desired characteristics; I was convinced I’d know the right dog when I saw her. And then I did. As soon as I happened upon Comet’s picture and short bio on Pet Rescue’s website, I was positive that she was my dog. I showed Ben, and, beginning that night, I pretended Comet was already mine. When we would ride the elevator, I would pretend she was on an invisible leash pulling me out the door. When we would walk to the subway, I would extend my arm as if she was leading the way. At night before bed, I would kiss imaginary Comet goodnight. Invisible Comet had already warmed her way into my heart. Unfortunately, we were not yet approved as viable adoptive parents according to Pet Rescue and needed to undergo their rigorous application process. I eagerly submitted the completed application, but we still had a phone interview with Katie (her foster “mom,”) a Skype tour of the apartment to verify its safety, and two references needed to call on our behalf as suitable dog owners, all while adorable Comet was up for grabs for anyone, baiting even the most cold-hearted dog hater with her adorable face. Ben was stressed. The more and more I became convinced that she was my perfect dog, the more he figured we wouldn’t be approved in time to “win” her. He also cautioned me that even if we were approved and she was still available, we should keep our mind’s open for other potential dogs, including her littermates, because you “can’t judge a dog by her photo.” I pacified him with halfhearted yeses, but inside, I knew she was my girl.

Thankfully, we worked through the hoops of the application process in an expedient fashion and were approved. (For the record, I fully believe in the need for formalized process; adopting a pet is a big responsibility.) I set up the trip to meet the foster dogs under Katie’s care and scoured Craigslist for a home crate and a travel crate. We prepared the apartment with puppy toys, the food she was used to eating, and training books.

When class let out that night, I was like a caged bird set free on her first flight. I ran to find the ZipCar and I manically chatted with Ben the whole ride about what Comet would be like and how much I would love her. When we arrived, Katie led us to the back where two litters of puppies tussled with one another. They swarmed us upon our entrance into their pen. I had a broken shoulder at the time, so I kneeled on the ground to prevent getting tangled or knocked in their play. Like a human sand pile, puppies climbed all over me and ran up and down my back and over my head. As much as I like puppies, I hate chaos and get easily overwhelmed, so I was actually fairly miserable. But then there was Comet. That sweet little girl came up somewhat gingerly. She placed her front paws on my chest and poked her neck out to smell my face, and then licked it. While puppies yipped and yelped and jumped around us, Comet and I locked eyes and connected. “That one is Comet,” said Katie. “And this is Cider, and this is Condor…” She continued to list other C-names and point to each rowdy furball. “This is her!” I said to Ben. He’s a dog magnet, so every dog loved him even more than me and he more agreeably romps and ruffles with them so he glanced over at us, said, “Are you sure?” and then fit in more puppy play time. He called her over and then engaged in spirited play and Comet seemed sold on him too.

Before we knew it, we had Comet in our new travel crate and I was sitting with her in the back of the car. For just a moment after we had pulled away from Katie’s lot, I panicked that I wouldn’t be the mom she needed or wanted and that I’d fail her. My heart started racing and I looked at her tiny little body cowering in the corner of the crate. She had seemed more energetic and spunky at Katie’s and I was worried she was overcome with sadness that we’d just pulled her from all the siblings and friends she’d ever known. She’d already lost her real mom, and I couldn’t bear thinking I was causing her more pain. I opened up the crate’s door and extended my arm inside. Little Comet was nearly trembling, but upon encountering my hand, she licked in and came to the front of the crate, nuzzling her nose through the cracked door to try and climb onto me.

From there, our bond strengthened by every hour of every day. I wasn’t working at the time, so I spent my days before class training and playing with her. She had never used a leash before, which is mandatory in Manhattan, and she wasn’t yet housetrained, so we had a lot of ground to cover. Each day was an adventure, but she was eager to please and a dedicated student.

Seven years later, a lot has changed and yet a lot remains the same. She’s still my best buddy, my companion, my sweet and loyal girl. She’s an integral cog in the Amber-Ben triad. Ben and I have moved six or seven times, held probably eight different jobs between the two of us, had several broken bones, hundreds of cries and thousands of laughs, and probably gone on enough walks with her to cover the distance across our country and back. Comet has been there for all of it. She is flexible and easy-going. She has crazy food allergies like me. She is the first to greet me every morning and it’s never with a bad mood or lackluster energy; every morning she treats me like I’m a gift, excitedly wagging, whining, and sneezing (her preferred expression of joy) when I rise. She is relentlessly loving and interested in whatever we are doing. She saved me when I didn’t want to save myself. She has been my friend when I’ve had no one to talk to. She’s taught me to be a mom and a leader, more patient and prepared. Despite all the troubles and challenges Ben and I have faced in the last seven years, it’s impossible for us to truly believe our life is unfair. We have Comet and she’s been far more than we ever dreamed she’d be.

Superhero Mom

In honor of Mother’s Day, I thought I would dedicate a brief post to my mom, who, for all intents and purposes, is really a superhero masquerading as a mom. Although I’m an adult and old enough to be a mom myself, I still need her; in fact, possibly more now than ever. And as a young adult with a chronic illnesses, autism, depression, and PTSD (to name just a few of my challenges), my mom has an overwhelmingly difficult task, yet she far exceeds any expectation or definition of a “mom” that I’ve encountered.

For someone who has such a easy time writing about quite a variety of topics, I always find it difficult to explicitly and effectively convey how much of “my everything” my mom is. I think that’s it though:  she is so much more than just a wonderful mom. She’s a dependable friend, an informed counselor, a confidant, a cheerleader, an unwavering source of support, to name a few. Maybe her importance in all of these roles and all of the many other hats she wears for me is so influential and necessary is because she is, in many cases, “the” instead of “a” for these roles: a sole warrior on the “Amber team”, working tirelessly behind the scenes to support my needs and dreams. It may sound cliché, but outside of the dyad of Ben and me, my mom is my best friend and my support system no matter what storms I have to weather. I’m not an easy person to befriend, given my physical restrictions for health reasons and my social confusion and blindness. Given my pain and my problems, I’m certainly not a pleasant or positive person many times, and against all odds and every challenge, my mom persists. I have yet to reach a day where my mom throws in the towel on any one of those crucial and tremendously generous hats she will don for me. This dependability has taught me to trust in her unconditional love and just be honest and open about my worries, problems, and even my lofty goals. I used to deeply dread being the bearer of bad news or opening up about some of my issues because I wanted her to see me as successful and well-adjusted. That facade is long gone! When I reflect on what changed, I think it was my ability to have faith (after continued reinforcement through her consistent backing of my needs) that mom was going to love me and help me no matter what. This is the most priceless and important gift anyone in life can receive. No matter what battles I need to face, I feel confident that I have a dedicated teammate who will help me face the challenge, strategize a way to work through it, and ultimately defeat it.

My mom carries a tremendous amount of wisdom, knowledge, patience, and dedication to learning about my problems and conditions so that she can both understand me and help me understand myself so that I am more comfortable and better off. Again, this is one of the most selfless and generous gifts I could possibly receive. My mom gives me her time, concern, compassion, and her strength when I don’t have enough of my own. Her unwavering support and love have stripped away some of the anxiety and guilt that I tend to innately bear for being “different” and “difficult.”

Perhaps equally important is how honored and special I feel that my mom allows me to be one of her best friends. She is open and honest with me and entrusts me with her own fears, pains, and emotions. As someone who has very few friends, this reciprocity in conversation and support makes me feel valued, respected, and purposeful.

I hope, for both of our sakes, that this year will be smoother, with fewer challenges and more clarity, comfort, success, and happiness. At the same time, I feel blessed that I can rely on my mom’s support in whatever way I need it and reciprocate this to the best of my ability, though we better not be evaluated on the same rubric because I’m more than a few paces behind her!

To my mom on this Mother’s Day (and every other day): Thank you for being everything I need on any given day and seamlessly shapeshifting to fill that need. I used to make you plaques and awards for Mother’s Day that read: World’s Greatest Mom, but as I’ve grown up I’ve found this to be a significant understatement. You are by far more than the best mom ever; you’re the best everything-I-need-you-to-be ever.

Small Victory

I had a medical appointment victory yesterday, which was especially welcome after a stumble on Wednesday, where, Ben accompanied me to my appointment, but I still left feeling overwhelmed and had a post-appointment stress meltdown in the car.

Yesterday, I not only went alone, but I saw a new doctor at a further hospital (I hate driving, so this was a triumph in and of itself), stuck out the hour-long wait for my behind-schedule appointment (all while getting a worse SPD- and anxiety-induced headache), and then talked to the new doctor. He even said I was “amazingly self-expressive and precise” in my ability to discuss my problems. What are the chances?!

After initially getting off to my typical monosyllabic I-forget-why-I’m-here/I’m-too-overwhelmed-to-talk start, I pulled out my phone and showed him what I had written down: “I am on the autism spectrum and I get a little nervous and shy but I’m really glad to be meeting with you because I have not been feeling well.” Following this line, I had written a list of my current symptoms. Thankfully, he also had my hefty medical records, which he had taken the time to review before I even entered the room; I guess this is why this guy is worth the drive and the wait! Upon reading my prompt, he immediately said he’d start with the talking and when I was ready to respond, I could jump right in.

His method worked fantastically. At first, we sort of briefly addressed the pertinent highlights in my chart: I confirmed them with a nod, and then verbal affirmations, and after a few minutes, with coherent elaboration and explanation where warranted. Before I knew it, I was discussing my current problems in language that made sense to me. He chuckled as he took notes while I spoke. At first it bothered me and then I asked him what was so funny, to which he replied, “You describe things in a unique way and very directly. You admit a lot of things people won’t and it’s refreshing how candid you are.” He apologized for laughing and said he wasn’t trying to laugh at me. I assured him now that I knew why he was laughing, I wasn’t at all offended and to “laugh away because I’m a bit of a weirdo and have no problem admitting my weaknesses.” That seemed to seal the deal in assuring my comfort with him and after that, we had a fluid conversation and I even allowed him to examine me—a process that is usually like wrestling an uncooperative toddler into a snowsuit because I don’t like to be touched.

This doctor not only had fabulous bedside manner and admirable patience, but he was also bright and action-oriented. Too many times it seems like doctors just shuttle me from specialist to specialist or test to test without actually interpreting anything or making a treatment plan besides either taking the “wait and see” approach or the “go elsewhere” one. Although this doctor is sending me for more tests and referring me to two other specialists, he gave me two diagnoses after reviewing the tests I’ve already had and will follow up with me in three weeks after the other information is received to complete the necessary picture for a treatment plan.

All in all, I’m really glad that my phone prompting approach worked and that this doctor had the tools and time to work within my needs. I’m also proud of myself for sticking out the wait because I got paid back in dividends with quality care. Prior to the appointment, as I waited in the loud and stressful waiting room minute after minute beyond my scheduled appointment time, I texted with Ben about how desperately I wanted to leave and I told him I was planning to shortly. After I was weighed and the doctor was entering my information, I texted Ben, “Ugh, just now getting in.” Of course, as the doctor was scrolling on my phone to review my notes, the text alert from Ben saying, “finally!” flashed on the phone’s screen. The doctor said, “someone named Ben just gave you an enthusiastic ‘finally’!” I said, “That’s my husband’s response after I complained sorely about how I wanted to bag this whole thing because I was tired of waiting.”

He laughed. I laughed.

As I left, I emphatically thanked him for helping me and I said, “I’m not pandering to you but something in me knew you’d be worth the wait!”

I do think I fell into the hands of a competent and compassionate provider but I also think my phone strategy and my bravery helped me in this interaction. I left feeling completely exhausted—even more so than usual after an appointment—but instead of being frustrated, more anxious, and confused, I felt informed, confident, and proud.

 

Am I Safe? Are You Harmless?

Yesterday, at urgent care, I had my first trauma-related mini panic attack in a long time. It used to be a disturbingly frequent problem but with therapy, time, and courage, I’ve started regaining trust in men. I’m now able to make a critical distinction: not all men are likely perpetrators of rape or attack. Most men, like most women, are good people trying their best to lead honorable and meaningful lives (or at least not criminal ones). My attacker was the exception to the rule, not the rule itself. After the attack, I feared every man, even ones I knew (except a handful of close friends or relatives). As such, any time I was in close proximity to a man, especially in secluded or isolated environments, I’d panic. My brain would flood with worries: would he touch me, hurt me, have a knife or weapon on his person, hate me for some unknown reason or have some other motive? Was he getting too close to my body? Was there an exit close by? Physical symptoms would mount just as rapidly in tandem with my spiraling thoughts, racing heart, dizziness, a feeling of facial flushing then rapid draining of color, whispers of nausea building to overwhelming sickness. Worse, as if erasing the months passed since the trauma, I’d feel physical reminders of the wounds I had suffered, as if still etched in gaping scabs and swollen bruises on my skin. Even when I’d have flashbacks while doing everyday activities like driving, sitting in class, or grocery shopping, I’d re-feel pain from the injuries I suffered during the attack sort of like when you see a graphic scene in a movie or real life when someone incurs a serious injury and for a fleeting second, you grab that same body part on your own body as if recoiling in reactive pain and verifying your body is fine.

Anyway, for the first year after the attack, any encounter with an unfamiliar man catapulted me into panic or flashbacks. The reaction was so automatic and so dramatic that I found it very limiting. I never wanted to find myself in a situation where I’d be one-in-one with a man or the only woman in a group. So, I stayed home. I avoided asking my male professors in my graduate program any questions during their office hours or while my peers were filing out of class, even if I was clueless about assignments or concepts. Email was my only vehicle of communication. I couldn’t risk it. (Surprisingly, a number of my professors turned out to be instrumental in helping me defeat this crippling anxiety by, of course, being so friendly and harmless.)

Eventually, I got over it by slowly loosening my grasp and gradually letting the fear slip away, by taking small, manageable steps at first, restoring some confidence, amassing successfully safe interactions, and continually trying to expand the “risks” I took to conquer more and more normal situations.

Yesterday, my encounter with the x-ray tech caused all the anxious feelings to flood back in and swell to a critical mass in my brain. With the door shut behind me, I felt mildly nervous, but with all my injuries in the past couple of years, it was certainly not my first time post-attack in a closed room with a male technician; I can think of at least five this year already! Perhaps it was slightly more anxiety-provoking because I had on a gown with no pants or underwear. I don’t know if this is inappropriate to admit or helpful to those with SPD but I can’t wear underwear. I’ve tried every kind imaginable and nothing is comfortable. Like socks, something seamless may first seem tolerable, but then suddenly, it becomes a screaming impossibility to handle. I’ve been known to stop dead in my tracks while out and about and frantically rip my shoes off to peel away my socks when the sensory threshold is surpassed. I rarely see it coming, but even in January, among the icy sidewalks carved into knee-high banks of snow, I’d plop right down and remove my boots to free my feet from a sock: trudging back home with cold, wet feet was still preferable to suffering the offending sock. I imagine this same solution for uncomfortable underwear is beyond socially acceptability, so it’s better to start with nothing! Luckily, the types of pants and shorts I wear and of comfortable fabrics and loosely-fitting designs (though they leave much to be desired in terms of fashion!).

All this is to say that I ended up on the x-ray table with no pants or underwear. A thin, gauzy white gown was my only shield. I lay there, staring up into the machine’s camera arm, my own arms folded over my chest as instructed waiting. Tim, the technician, tinkered on the computer to enter my demographics. With the light out, my heartbeat starting accelerating; first, it was hardly noticeable, but with my hands over my chest, I quickly realized that it was not only beating quickly, it was also pounding, visually displacing my hands up and down with each beat. Relax, I told myself. When Tim emerged from the small closet containing his desk and computer, my ears started ringing and I became dizzy. “Are you OK?” He asked. I nodded yes, unable to speak, but my spooked eyes were a tell that I was lying. “You are very crooked on the table,” he commented. “Can you straighten yourself out?” As I have terrible kinesthetic awareness and body position sense, I am never surprised to hear this and have received similar instructions almost every time I’m at an appointment. I tried my best to align my body on the table. He started gently pushing my shoulders and straightening my neck and then my feet to position me appropriately for the picture. Like a reflex or the pop of a Jack-in-the-box, my limbs recoiled into a tight tuck position over my trunk to avoid his touch. “You’re fine! I’m just getting your spine lined up here. Don’t worry I’ve done this for years!”

I pleaded with my mind to relax. I didn’t want to feel afraid of him, and logically, I knew that he was totally harmless. In fact, I felt guilty even having unintentional anxieties about the situation. We tried again to situate my body as well as possible and then he swung the overhead camera into its designated location. He reached over me to palpate my iliac crests in tandem to verify proper positioning and a level pelvis. This is it, I thought. I squeezed my eyes as if to will myself out of the situation and transport myself to safety. But, I was safe. Just as he should be and just as he should have clearly seemed, Tim was a harmless healthcare worker trying to do his job in providing necessary medical images for my care. He retreated to his computer command station, told me to hold my breath and not move, and snapped an image. As he repositioned me for the next series, I was visibly more relaxed, and a wave of relief came over me, not just because nothing had happened and I knew that I was safe, but because ultimately, I knew the whole time that I was in good hands but my anxious reaction seemed entirely out of my control. I was embarrassed by it the moment it began stewing, and struck by how unfamiliar the reaction had become to me—a testament to the vast improvements I’ve made over the past two years. What was once as natural and automatic as turning my head when someone says my name has gradually become a faint memory, an abandoned instinct like a long-forgotten nickname whose familiarity only resurfaces years later when you hear it again.

It’s easy to feel displeased with my behavior/reaction during the imaging because it feels like I must’ve taken steps back. I’m hoping it makes sense to simply blame it on the stress and frequency of my recent medical appointments. I also choose, in this situation, to recognize the progress I have made. The encounter served as a helpful reminder of how far I’ve come, how unfamiliar and removed I felt from those once-pervasive worries, and how naturally and normally I now face everyday situations without the looming fears of getting victimized by every passing man.